Stepper Motors

The stepper motor is a device used to convert electrical pulses into discrete mechanical rotational movements.

Most common are 2-phase permanent magnet (PM) motors which provide discrete angular movement every time the polarity of a winding is changed.

CONSTRUCTION
In a typical motor, electrical power is applied to two coils. Two stator cups formed around each of these coils, with pole pairs mechanically displaced by 1/2 a pole pitch, become alternately energized North and South magnetic poles. Between the two stator-coil pairs, the displacement is 1/4 of a pole pitch. The permanent magnet rotor is magnetized with the same number of pole pairs as contained by the stator-coil section.

Interaction between the rotor and stator (opposite poles attracting and likes repelling) causes the rotor to move 1/4 of a pole pitch per winding polarity change. A 2-phase motor with 12 pole pairs per stator-coil section would thus move 48 steps per revolution or 7.5° per step.

STEP ANGLE
Step angles for steppers are available in a range from .72° to 90°.
Standard step angles are:

3.6º — 100 steps per revolution.

7.5° — 48 steps per revolution.

15° — 24 steps per revolution.

18° — 20 steps per revolution.

A movement of any multiple of these angles is possible. For example, six steps of a 15° stepper motor would give a movement of 90°.

ACCURACY
A 7.5° stepper motor, either under a load or no load condition, will have a step-to-step accuracy of 6.6% or 0.5º. This error is noncumulative so that even after making a full revolution, the position of the rotor shaft will be 360º ± 0.5º.

The step error is noncumulative. It averages out to zero within a 4-step sequence which corresponds to 360 electrical degrees. A particular step characteristic of the 4-step is to sequence repeatedly using the same coil, magnetic polarity and flux path. Thus, the most accurate movement would be to step in multiples of four, since electrical and magnetic imbalances are eliminated. Increased accuracy also results from movements which are multiples of two steps.

Keeping this in mind, positioning applications should use 2 or 4 steps (or multiples thereof) for each desired measured increment, wherever possible.

BIPOLAR AND UNIPOLAR OPERATION
Stepper motors are available with either 2-coil Bipolar, or 4-coil Unipolar windings. The stator flux with a Bipolar winding is reversed by reversing the current in the winding. It requires a push-pull Bipolar drive.

Care must be taken to design the circuit so that the drive transistors, which are in series, do not short the power supply by coming on at the same time. Properly operated, the Bipolar winding gives the optimum motor performance at low-to-medium step rates.

A Unipolar winding has two coils wound on the same bobbin (one bobbin resides in each stator half) per stator half. Flux is reversed in each coil bobbin assembly by sequentially grounding ends of each half of the coil winding. The use of a Unipolar winding, some times called a bifilar winding, allows the drive circuit to be simplified. Not only are half as many power switches required (4 vs. 8), but the timing is not as critical to prevent a current short through two transistors as is possible with a Bipolar drive.

For a Unipolar motor to have the same number of turns per winding as a Bipolar motor, the wire diameter must be decreased and the resistance increased. As a result, Unipolar motors have 30% less torque at low step rates. However, at higher rates the torque outputs are equivalent.

Information Courtesy: Thomson Industries, Inc.

 

 

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